Carbon-Free Europe analyzed pathways for the EU plus UK to reach net-zero emissions by 2050, building on existing decarbonization modeling efforts to explore additional constraints, risks, and opportunities for Europe and individual member states to reach carbon neutrality. We aim to analyze, demonstrate, and communicate the physical reality of a deeply decarbonised Europe. This research will help inform our policy work to achieve realistic decarbonisation pathways.

The analysis explores five scenarios to examine potential futures for Europe that all achieve net-zero energy and industrial CO₂ emissions in 2050: 1) Core, assuming high levels of electrification and hydrogen deployment, 2) Slow Demand Transformation, where our demand-side transformation is slower than anticipated, 3) 100% Renewable Primary Energy, where energy supply comes entirely from renewables with no fossil or nuclear energy by 2050, 4) Limited Renewable Siting, with more restrictions on renewables development, and 5) Domestic Preference, where countries prioritize domestic energy supplies.

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We have produced in-depth analysis specific to each country. Click a country on the map below or choose from the list to view country-level results.